res = u - u_n + E_dt*(dot(W, grad(u)) - a1U*div(grad(cpiU*u))).

If I try to save this via

vtkfileR = File('solutionResidual.pvd')
vtkfileR << res

I get:

Traceback (most recent call last):
File "t-modell_02_SUPG.py", line 355, in <module>
vtkfileR << res
File "/usr/lib/petsc/lib/python3/dist-packages/dolfin/io/__init__.py", line 21, in __lshift__
self.write(u)
AttributeError: 'Sum' object has no attribute '_cpp_object'

You need to assemble the residual. Anything written with dot, grad, inner, div, dx etc are objects from the Unified form language (ufl). To obtain numerical values, such objects has to be assembled. To assemble a residual with boundary conditions, see for instance: Residual for Stokes equation not equal to zero - #3 by nate

res = assemble(u - u_n + E_dt*(dot(W, grad(u)) - a1U*div(grad(cpiU*u))))

but got this

Traceback (most recent call last):
File "t-modell_02_SUPG.py", line 353, in <module>
res = assemble(u - u_n + E_dt*(dot(W, grad(u)) - a1U*div(grad(cpiU*u))))
File "/usr/lib/petsc/lib/python3/dist-packages/dolfin/fem/assembling.py", line 202, in assemble
dolfin_form = _create_dolfin_form(form, form_compiler_parameters)
File "/usr/lib/petsc/lib/python3/dist-packages/dolfin/fem/assembling.py", line 64, in _create_dolfin_form
raise TypeError("Invalid form type %s" % (type(form),))
TypeError: Invalid form type <class 'ufl.algebra.Sum'>

Please supply a minimal working code example. That means a complete code that with as few lines as possible can reproduce the error. A Good example should be no longer tha 25 lines, and have no boundary conditions or other parameters.

from fenics import *
import numpy as np
p0 = Point(0.0,0.0)
p1 = Point(1.0,1.0)
mesh = RectangleMesh(p0,p1,10,10,'left')
Q = FunctionSpace(mesh, 'CG', 1)
V = VectorFunctionSpace(mesh, 'CG', 1)
u = TrialFunction(Q)
v = TestFunction(Q)
U = Function(Q)
u_n = interpolate(Constant(1.0),Q)
W = Function(V)
w = np.array(W.vector()).reshape((-1,2))
w[:,] = np.array([0.0,0.5])
W.vector()[:] = w.reshape((-1))
lambdaU = Function(Q)
rhoU = interpolate(Constant(1),Q)
cpiU = Function(Q)
a1U = lambdaU/rhoU
E_dt = Expression('dt',degree=0,dt=1.0)
res = assemble(u*dx - u_n*dx + E_dt*dot(W, grad(u))*dx - a1U*div(grad(cpiU*u))*dx)

This is the condensed code. Running without mpirun (before it was with mpirun) returns:

...
File "/usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/ufl/algorithms/check_arities.py", line 48, in sum
raise ArityMismatch("Adding expressions with non-matching form arguments {0} vs {1}.".format(_afmt(a), _afmt(b)))
ufl.algorithms.check_arities.ArityMismatch: Adding expressions with non-matching form arguments () vs ('v_1',).

u is a trial function, and has to be multiplied by a test function (and forms a matrix). The second argument u_n is a function, multiplied by dx will be assembled as a scalar value.

Please make sure that you are assembling something that makes sense. See for instance the stokes residual question above for how one forms a residual.

Note that in r you have a trial function (u). This has to be replaced by your solution to the problem, using
For instance ufl.replace. See Derivative function has no attribute 'subs' - #2 by dokken on how to use replace. If there are no test or trial functions in the residual, the assembly (r*dx) simply becomes a scalar value.
If you want to look at the spatial variation of the residual, you should project it into a suitable function space and save the result to pvd or xdmf